Tag Archives: rose

Gratitude and Essential Oils

Gratitude and essential oilsWinter is here. We have been lucky to have such a mild autumn but this month marks the beginning of winter and colder weather. It can be hard to feel gratitude for the cold and wet of winter but without the rainy days nothing would grow and bushfires would be more prevalent in summer.

It can be hard some days to have or feel a sense of gratitude when everything seems to be going wrong but there is always something to feel gratitude or appreciation for if we take the time to look.

There is no need to write long gratitude lists. Simply take a few minutes out of your day to express gratitude or appreciation for something you have no matter how small. You may also like to express your gratitude or appreciation to someone for being in your life.

tap and glassHere in Australia everyone has ready access to clean water no matter how poor they maybe. For most people it is only necessary to turn on their kitchen tap to have instant running water. In some countries, people usually women or children need to walk kilometres to access and carry back drinking water that may contain harmful viruses or bacteria.

Having a roof over your head and somewhere you can sleep and feel safe is another reason for gratitude. There are still too many people who are homeless and sleep in the streets or have a home but don’t feel safe in it for one reason or another.

Having a job or source of income so you can feed yourself and your family is something that not everyone has. In some countries the person may have a job but make barely enough to feed themselves let alone their family.

There are many more reasons for feeling grateful for what you have in your life. Perhaps you can think of three. Having friends and family who support you in your endeavours, having a garden you can enjoy, being healthy or having ready access to medical help if you’re not, knowing about and using essential oils.

Here are eight essential oils you may like to use in your gratitude practice.
Bergamot (Citrus bergamia) helps you through the dark times in your life. She also helps you to see and be grateful for the lessons learnt, for they have helped you to grow into the strong person you are now.

Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) brings a sense of security and strength allowing you to see and feel grateful for all you have rather than continually working without a sense of balance in your life.

German chamomile (Matricaria recutita) can help you let go of fixed expectations that prevent you feeling gratitude in the now for all that you have.

Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) brings a sense of lightness and gratitude. She also helps you let go of unrealistic high expectations for yourself and others which can stop you from feeling gratitude for what you have and disappointment over what you don’t have.

Juniper (Juniperus communis) cleanses the negativity that maybe surrounding you allowing you to feel more joy and gratitude for the help and resources you have available.

Mandarin/Tangerine (Citrus reticulata) reminds you to take time out for play and not be overwhelmed by your responsibilities or the continual need to work or worry about what you don’t have but rather enjoy what you do have in this present moment.

Rose (Rosa damascena) reminds you that you are unconditionally loved. She helps heal emotional wounds and scars. She nurtures a sense of gratitude for the love you have in your life even if you cannot always see or feel it.

Sandalwood (Santalum album) brings a sense of gratitude by calming your fears and worries and allowing you to see all that you have and what is really important to you.

You may like to combine two or three of these oils and place 6-8 drops in a diffuser or vaporiser or add 10-20 drops of essential oil to a 100 or 125 ml bottle of distilled water, flower water or hydrosol. Shake the misting bottle well before spraying and take care not to get water or the mist on any furniture or furnishings that can be damaged or stained by the water or essential oils.

If you would like your own personal blend for this or any other issue feel free to contact me and discuss it.

Essential Oils for Endings and Beginnings

Essential oils for endings and beginnings

“You only grow by coming to the end of something and by beginning something else.”
John Irving, The World According to Garp

The end of an old year and the start of a new one is just one of the many endings and beginnings that are occurring throughout your life.

In a few months summer will end and autumn will begin. As with many endings and beginnings the change maybe so gradual that we may not notice that we are in a new phase or time of life.

In your own life you have been through many endings and beginnings, You may have gone to preschool and then primary school, high school and possibly university, TAFE or college and then into the workforce. Each stage an ending and a beginning at the end of which you were no longer the same person you were at the beginning. You were a child with a child’s beliefs and ideas in preschool and primary and now you are an adult with adult responsibilities.

During your life you may lose parents, children, siblings and close friends. You mourn their loss and must find a new way to go on, a new beginning without them. Your parent may not physically die but may be lost to you through Alzheimer’s and so your way of relating to them and them to you is ended and you have to find a new way to continue the relationship.

Ending a journeyEndings and beginnings happen every day for example, finishing one project and beginning another or coming to the end of one journey and beginning another.

Changing your way of thinking can also signal an ending and beginning. Deciding to stop eating unhealthily, that you will no longer accept being treated with disrespect, changing your beliefs about yourself and what you are capable of will all lead to new beginnings.

Remember that sometimes what can seem like a terrible ending opens the door to something more wonderful. For example you lose your job only to get another that is higher paying and gives you the chance to excel.

Some Essential Oils to Help With Endings and Beginnings
Bergamot (Citrus bergamia) can help when you feel you have lost your way. She is the light at the end of the tunnel.

Cedarwood (Cedrus atlantica) helps you to stand firm when there seems nothing but chaos around you.

Cypress (Cupressus sempervirens) is ideal when going through emotional and physical change. She helps you to grieve losing the old while accepting the new.

Fennel Sweet (Foeniculum vulgare dulce) helps remind you that as one door closes another opens.

Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) helps you to rebalance and relax especially when going through stressful endings.

Juniper (Juniperus communis) is psychologically cleansing and purifying helping to support you when going through challenging endings and beginnings.

Kunzea (Kunzea ambigua) helps to ease the emotional pain you may feel during this period.

Lavender (Lavendula angustifolia) will nurture and nourish you emotionally during this period.

Marjoram (Marjorama hortensis) helps ease any anxiety you may be feeling.

Rose (Rosa damascena) provides compassion for yourself and others who may be going through these times with you.

Ways to Use the Oils
Use a single oil or a blend of 2 or 3 oils in a diffuser, vaporiser, shower, bath, spray mist, massage or perfume. See https://www.thefragrantbridge.com/guidelines-for-diluting-essential-oils/

Essential Oils and Anger

Essential oils and anger header

Anger, disappointment and blame are all natural emotions but if they are not expressed or held onto for too long they can lead to illness and disease.

angerAnger can be the result of fear, worry, anxiety or sadness we don’t want to feel. Sometimes it is easier to blame others rather than examine and express our own fears and insecurities.

Essential oils that can help you or others to process and let go of these emotions include the following oils. They can be used in a vaporiser, bath, massage or perfume. Use singly or in a blend.

Bergamot (Citrus bergamia) is for those who do not express but instead repress their anger. This can lead to depression, mood swings and insomnia. Bergamot can help them explore their pent-up feelings and release them.

Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) is for the perfectionists who have high standards for both themselves and others. When things don’t go as planned they blame themselves or others and may lash out. Afterwards they feel guilty and comfort themselves with too much food or alcohol. Grapefruit helps them to accept more realistic goals and clears the heavy feelings of self-blame and angry disappointment.

Lavender BeesLavender (Lavendula angustifolia) helps to calm strong emotions like anger that threaten to overwhelm the person. She can help clear pent-up feelings of annoyance and calm the person down after a sudden outburst of anger.

Roman Chamomile (Anthemis nobilis) is ideal for those who harbour resentment because they feel neglected. They are moody and may even deny or not accept help when it is offered.

Rose (Rosa damascena) is for those whose anger stems from feeling betrayed, rejected or hurt emotionally. She’s also for those who lash out in anger and are then filled with regret and remorse. Rose brings a sense of compassion for themselves and others.

yarrowYarrow (Achillea millefolium) is for those who are easily offended and strike out in rage. They feel vulnerable and may have been emotionally wounded in the past. They may on the other hand repress their feelings of anger and always be on the defensive or retort with sharp or sarcastic comments.

Ylang Ylang (Cananga odorata) is for those who have a lot of anger because they feel frustrated and fearful and don’t know any other way to express it. Ylang Ylang can bring a sense of peace allowing them to face their fears.

Essential Oils and Anxiety

Essential oils and anxiety

AnxietyAnxiety is a mild form of fear where we react to a perceived threat. Fear is a necessary aspect of our lives as it alerts us to real danger and gives us a sense of self-preservation.

On the other hand anxiety is a reaction to an emotional threat that we don’t want to face such as grief, anger, embarrassment, perceived failure or guilt. Anxiety is our reaction to these emotions we believe will cause us harm and can manifest as a lack of self-confidence, a sense of apprehension or a feeling of insecurity or emotional unease. Some short term anxiety is natural as in the case of exam nerves or going for a job interview. Anxiety is only an issue when it becomes chronic or escalates into an acute state such as panic attacks where there is no real physical danger in most cases.

For many people anxiety is a future-oriented mood state in which they imagine all the negative scenarios and how they will react to them. For many this is a coping mechanism to deal with upcoming difficult situations or events. We don’t usually feel anxious if we are envisioning a positive outcome.

Worry is carrying

Anxiety may manifest physically as an elevated heart rate, heart palpitations, shortness of breath, upset stomach, diarrhoea, muscle tension, headaches, tiredness and difficulty falling or staying asleep.

Meditation is a no cost or low cost strategy that allows your body to relax, release the fear and anxiety and repair and heal itself. Meditation can be as simple as going outdoors, taking off your shoes and socks allowing your feet or body to rest on the grass, sand or other natural surface and breathing slowing and deeply for 5 or 10 minutes

Tap into your wise all-knowing self. Sit quietly and ask if this is a situation you really need to worry about or can you trust that all will be fine.

Nourish yourself by eating well, exercising, getting enough sleep, maintaining healthy relationships, spending time in nature or the outdoors and doing the things that bring you joy.

Essential oils help you to relax as they go straight to the limbic brain the centre of our basic emotions and calm it down. They ground and calm you bringing you back to your body. You can try meditating with essential oils, vaporising them, using them in the bath or as a spray mist in your aura or on your physical body.

Frankincense (Boswellia carterii) deepens and slows the breath calming and centring the mind. She is particularly useful when the mind is overwhelmed by thoughts of what can go wrong. Frankincense will help you to access your wise all- knowing self allowing insight into your anxiety.

Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) is a balancing oil useful for anxiety and panic attacks. Overachievers and perfectionists who worry about the outcome or not being good enough can benefit from this oil.

Jasmine flowers

Jasmine (Jasminum officinalis) calms the nerves, releases tension and uplifts the mind. Jasmine can be of particular benefit when anxiety alternates with depression.

Lavender (Lavandula officinalis/angustifolia/vera) is an oil that is readily available and is known as an aromatic “Rescue Remedy”. She eases nervous tension and can help ally feelings of panic as well as calm any strong emotions that threaten to overwhelm the mind.

Marjoram (Origanum marjorana) calms the mind when thoughts are going round and round in circles. She offers a sense of self nurturing especially when you are thinking that nobody cares.

Neroli (Citrus aurantium var. amara) reminds us that we always have a choice. She helps us to face painful emotions such as guilt, shame, hurt and anger and to find peace of mind once we have done so.

Rose (Rosa damascena) can assist those who suffer from deep anxiety caused by insecurity and a fear of losing control. Rose helps to heal deep emotional wounding and despair.

Fear and Essential Oils

Fear and essential oils header

Fear is faith that it won’t work out.
Sister Mary Tricky

Businessman Clasping His Face in HorrorSomeone once said that FEAR is False Evidence Appearing Real but I think the quote above is also true. How many times do you not even attempt do something because you’re convinced it won’t work out and you don’t want to face your fear of failure?

Essential oils are very useful to help you deal with your fears and you will find a list of oils to help you below.

Fear is a form of self-preservation that can present as simple consternation, apprehension, dread, panic or terror. When you are feeling panicked your heart races and you breathe more quickly and shallowly. You may feel like running away or conversely be unable to move.

If it is a more chronic form of fear you may feel the above in a milder form or just have a general sense of unease. You may also feel anxious, frustrated and angry.

Fear can show up as perfectionism, procrastination, lack of self-confidence, feeling insecure and fear of failure, losing control, change or being hurt in love. You may forget the words to a speech or turn down invitations to social events due to your fear.

Fear can alert you to real danger but often it is based on emotion rather than fact. For example you may procrastinate because you fear that you will not do something correctly or others may judge you on the results. Perfectionism is also a form of fear based on feeling vulnerable.

Fear can also paralyse your personal growth when it is a reaction to change and transformation. You cannot know how each change will affect you. The mind sees the death of old patterns and beliefs as a mini death and wants to protect you.

Oils that can help with the issues associated with fear include:
Basil (Ocimum basilicum) – Needing to be in control regardless of the consequences, low self-esteem and self-worth.

Cedarwood (Cedrus atlantica) – Courage to move forward and stand firm in the face of crisis.

Chamomile German (Matricaria recutita) – Helps to let go of fixed expectations, old ideas and beliefs.

Cypress (Cupressus sempervirens) – Cope with and accept difficult change.

Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) – Perfectionists and those who deny their feelings, panic attacks.

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) – Procrastination, self-doubt, restores initiative and determination.

Juniper (Juniperus communis) – Fear of failure, support in challenging situations, strengthens will-power.

Lavender (Lavendula angustifolia) – Feels oppressed and suffocated by situations or other people.

Rose (Rosa damascena) – Can’t bear to be left alone due to fears of being abandoned, fear of losing control, insecurity.

Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) – Instils courage and self-confidence, strengthens your resolve to overcome obstacles.

Vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides) – Face challenges, feels threatened by need to change, calm strength, panic attacks.

Ylang Ylang (Cananga odorata) – Fear of intimacy, helps you to recognise whether or not the fear is appropriate and deal with it, anger, sense of peace.

The oils can be used singly or in a blend in the bath, vaporiser, in massage or as an anointing oil. Use on the solar plexus and/or wherever else feels appropriate. For details on diluting the oils click here.

You may need to seek professional help for your fear if it is strongly affecting the way you live your life. The oils will help you to change on a soul level if you so desire.

Rose (Rosa damascena)

Rose header

Rose is the first oil I reach for when people are grieving. She has a long history and has been much loved since ancient times. There are three main species used in aromatherapy;
Rosa damascena – the Damask rose
Rosa gallica – the Gallic rose
Rosa centifolia – the Cabbage rose
My discussion on rose will focus on Rosa damascena.

Family: Rosaceae

Synonyms: Damask Rose. Rose Otto refers to the steam distilled essential oil. Rose absolute refers to the solvent extracted absolute most often from Rosa centifolia. Rose Attar refers to the distillation of rose petals in Sandalwood oil done in India. I won’t be discussing absolutes or attars in this post.

Aroma: Rose has a deep sweet rosy-floral aroma but this can vary depending on the amount of minor constituents in the oil. These variations can be due to the country of origin, distillation and storage among other factors. I remember early in my practice taking back a bottle of rose essential oil to my supplier because of the difference in smell between a previous bottle I had bought there and the present one. The above factors were explained to me. It is also important to remember I think that we are working with a living entity and as such there will be variations over time. It is really only the perfume and flavour industries that need a standard fragrance but as therapists especially working on a soul level it is important to have an unadulterated essence and that will mean having some variance in aroma/fragrance from time to time.

Colour: Pale yellow to yellowish green

Plant: Perennial bush rose that grows to 2 metres and has a plantation life of 10 –12 years with annual pruning.

Main Growing Areas: Bulgaria, Turkey, Southern Russia and Morocco. The finest rose essential oil is said to come from Bulgaria in the Valley of the Roses, which lies between two mountain chains.

Major Constituents: Rose contains more than 300 chemical constituents of which around 10 or so major constituents including citronellol, geraniol, nerol, linalool, farnesol and stearoptene make up 85-90% of the volume with approximately a further 275 – 290 making up the remaining 10-15%. Although these minor constituents may only be present in trace amounts they are an important part of the oil. (It is hard to be accurate here as different sources quote different amounts.) It is important to note that the chemical component that gives rose her characteristic smell beta damescenone only makes up 0.14% of all the constituents but gives almost 70% of the aroma. Unfortunately due to the high price of genuine rose essential oil there is the temptation to adulterate the oil with palmarosa and geranium, or to ‘extend’ it with constituents such as ‘geraniol’, a good reason to get to know your supplier.

Interesting snippets: It is said that Rosa damascena is a cross between Rosa gallica and Rosa centifolia but there is still some debate about this.

Over 2,500 years ago the Greek poetess Sappho named rose “The Queen of Flowers.”
Roses have been used both medicinally and as a symbol of divinity in Persia, China, India and Egypt since ancient times. In the case of China in the Han dynasty the emperor had to issue an edict to restrict the growing of roses as his subjects so loved rose gardens that they were growing them instead of food thus threatening food production.

In the palace of Knossos in Crete there is a fresco of a rose dating back to 2000BC. The island of Rhodes is said to get its name from rhodon meaning rose in Greek.

It is said that the British King or Queen is still anointed at the coronation ceremony with “Holy oil” containing rose essence, the recipe for which dates back to the 12th century.

The phrase subrosa meaning secret or confidential is said to have originated from the practice of hanging a rose over the dining or conference table as a symbol that all conversations were to be kept confidential. To this day the ornamental plasterwork in the centre of the ceiling is called a rose.

Each year one of the largest Turkish distillers sends 500 litres of rosewater to Mecca to wash the holy walls each day.

Susanne Fischer-Rizzi sees the rose as a symbol of completeness. “Rose roots are strong, leaves harmoniously arranged, flowers indescribably beautiful and filled with an exquisite fragrance. Even the little devils, thorns, that add challenge, menace or spice to earthly things are not missing.”

Valerie Ann Worwood in The Fragrant Heavens writes that in ancient times in Greece and Italy graves were planted with rose bushes and strewn with rose petals. In medieval Europe religious rites for the dead were often carried out in rose gardens or within the ‘rose hedge’. I think that the people participating in these funerals would have benefited greatly from the perfume of the roses during a difficult time.

A Rose Garden in the Royal Botanical Gardens, Sydney. Australia

Part of Plant used / Extraction: It takes over 1300 rose blossoms to make one gram of essential oil or 30 roses to make 1 drop of oil. That and the fact that the roses are picked by hand rather than by machine is the reason why rose essential oil is so expensive. Picked in May and June from dawn to 9 or 10am when the essence is highest in the petals, the temperature cool, the humidity high and the sunlight gentle. During this time an average picker can harvest between 30 and 40 kg of rose flowers a day.

Rose Apron

The petals are put into bags and taken to the distillery where they are either distilled within hours of picking or in very busy times when the distillery can’t keep up with the harvesting they are stored in thin layers in air conditioned storage warehouses and sprayed with cold water to prevent the essential oils from evaporating.

The fresh rose petals are hydro distilled, that is they are immersed in water and the water is slowly heated and both the oil and the water are collected. In a process called cohabitation the distillation water is then processed again through a cylindrical Florentine tank to isolate the remaining rose oil. Once this process is complete the oil is easily separated as it floats to the top of the water. The essential oil we buy is a combination of oil from both processes. The water, which contains trace amounts of the essential oil constituents, is later sold as rosewater. The complete process can take 5 – 6 hours.

Rose petals being poured into vatNOTE: Pure rose essential oil is expensive but it is possible to buy it diluted 3 or 5% in jojoba or other carrier oils. I prefer it in jojoba as jojoba is a wax, not an oil so it does not go rancid over time. This allows you to experience the properties of rose without the expense.

Therapeutic actions: Rose is excellent for inflamed, irritated and infected skin conditions but being an expensive oil I think it is better to use other oils which work just as well and save your precious rose for spiritual and emotional issues where she excels.

Skin care: Dry, sensitive and mature skin. Rose is excellent in face creams for mature skin.
Susanne Fischer-Rizzi states that equal amounts of undiluted melissa officinalis and rose essential oils helps to heal shingles in a few days but as I have not tried it I can’t confirm this.

Emotional and Spiritual: Rose is excellent for grief, bereavement, emotional wounding and nervous anxiety.

As stated above Rose is the first oil I reach for when someone is grieving. Combined with neroli or bergamot she helps to bring some light into their soul.

Gabriel Mojay writes that rose has the ability to bring warmth and restore trust to a soul that has grown cold through abuse, hurt, despair, loss and rejection, making it possible to love again.

rose and budRobbi Zeck writes, “The glorious rose enfolds the soul within its own fragrant song, aligning it with the higher angelic realms”. She also writes, “Awakening the heart energy, the exquisite fragrance of the velvety rose calls forth a sense of deeper identity and belonging.” I feel that this is truly an essence to welcome the angels and is one reason why I included her in my Angelic Blessings Mist.

Patricia Davies writes, “The unfolding of a rose from bud to flower, symbolises the unfolding of love within the heart. It brings healing to the Heart chakra and helps it to open again when grief has caused it to close down but where the chakra is already open, Rose strengthens its energy, enabling love energy to radiate out.”

Aromatherapy Insight Card:
Rose renews the sense of wellbeing to all areas of your life, bringing comfort and warmth to those who have grown emotionally cold. Rose can knock down the biggest walls that you have built as a coping mechanism to feel protected. Love flows deep, and we may have set our attitudes and beliefs around how we experienced love in the past. Nothing from the past reflects on the future unless we choose to allow it to happen. So embrace the emotionally nurturing and sensuous benefits of Rose oil to rediscover and regain your passions in life.

Rose aromatherapy insight cardCourtesy of J. Jefferies & K. Osborn.

Fragrant Change Healing Card: I treat myself and others with kindness, compassion and respect.

Rose affirmation

Contemplations for the Soul Card:

Rose contemplation for the soul card

Can you truly love unconditionally or are you putting conditions on your love?
Do you lack compassion for yourself and others?
Do you feel unable to trust yourself or others due to past hurts and betrayals?
Consider where you may be putting conditions on your love and your reasons for those conditions.
Think of ways that you can show compassion to yourself and others rather than shutting your heart down when you or others are suffering or make mistakes.
If you have been emotionally hurt or betrayed it can be hard to love again but have the courage and faith to tear down the walls, open your heart to let love in.
Learn to love and trust again.

Safety: Non-irritating, non-sensitising. Advisable not to use neat on children under 18 months of age.

Sources: Battaglia S, The Complete Guide To Aromatherapy. The Perfect Potion, Australia (1995)
Berkowsky B, Berkowsky’s Synthesis Materia Medica/Spiritualis of Essential Oils (2006)
Davis, P, Subtle Aromatherapy. The C.W.Daniel Company Ltd. (1992)
Fischer-Rizzi, S, Complete Aromatherapy Handbook. Essential Oils for Radiant Health Sterling Publishing Company (1990)
Hodges C, Fragrant change Healing Cards (2015)
Hodges C. Contemplations for the Soul (2016)
Jefferies J, Osborn. K, Aromatherapy Insight Cards. Living Energy, Aust. (2nd Ed. 2005)
Kerr, J, Rose Essential Oil Profile. Aromatherapy Today, Vol.17 (2001)
Lawless J, Rose Oil. Thorson’s (1995)
Llewellyn, J, Ode to the Turkish Rose. Simply Essential, Issue no.35 (2000)
Mailhebiau P, Portraits in Oils. The C.W.Daniel Company Ltd. (1995)
Hagan S, Liquid Gold. In Essence, Vol.5 No.2 (2006)
Mojay G, Aromatherapy for Healing the Spirit. Hodder and Stoughton (1996)
Sydney Essential Oil Company, Harvest: Rose from Bulgaria. Oily Autumn Edition (2011)
Worwood, V.A, The Fragrant Heavens. Doubleday Publishing UK (1999)
Zeck R, The Blossoming Heart. Aroma Tours (2004)

Rose apron and pouring roses into a vat photos courtesy of Enio Bonchev Production Ltd. Contact www.seoc.com.au for more information

Essential Oils For Valentine’s Day

Essential oils for Valentine's day header

Angel heartFebruary 14th is Valentine’s Day when many couples plan some special time together and may even give gifts to each other to express their love. Whether you do or don’t have someone special to share the day with remember to send some love to the most important person in your life – you.

Here are some oils you might like to try for that special Valentine’s evening. All except elemi, lavender and neroli have been said to have aphrodisiac properties.

Elemi (Canarium luzonicum) is very calming, centring and grounding, offering support and strength when you need to reconnect with yourself and others.

Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) brings balance to all areas of your life.

Jasmine (Jasminum officinalis) harmonises your sensual self with your emotional self allowing passion to flow.

Lavender (Lavendula angustifolia) is nurturing

Neroli (Citrus aurantium var.amara) is both sensual and spiritual. She is helpful if you are feeling tired and stressed.

Rose (Rosa damascena) is the oil for unconditional love.

Ylang Ylang (Cananga odorata) helps to reunite your sensual and emotional self. Eases the fear of intimacy, especially if you experienced rejection in the past and calms jealousy by helping you to feel more lovable. Strong perfume so you don’t need much.

You can either vaporize 4-6 drops of one or a combination of oils in a diffuser or add up to 10 drops of one or a combination of oils to 20 mls of vegetable oil to make a relaxing massage oil with aphrodisiac properties.